JSNA Healthy Places

Introduction and data summary

Where we live, work and socialise plays an important role in our health. Both the built and natural environment make up part of the wider determinants of health and influence people’s physical and mental health. This impact can be felt across the life course and impact on health inequalities. The quality of the environment can influence many aspects of people’s lives, for example social connections within a neighbourhood, quality and availability of housing and food outlets, exposure to air and noise pollution, safe transport including opportunities for active travel. The planning and management of places can help promote good health, improve access to services and reduce health inequalities.

Local public health teams can influence the health of places. For example, feeding into the plans for new housing developments, influencing leaders in partner organisations to consider how the wider determinants of health are impacted by transport, air and noise pollution, improving access to health assets such as green spaces, and considering health hazards in local areas such as concentrations of fast food, alcohol or gambling outlets.

The JSNA Healthy Places report explores this data in more detail

This link opens a Power BI presentation. Power BI is an interactive data visualization software developed by Microsoft.

For more detailed information about travel, commuting, air pollution and road accidents see the Travel report.

Hampshire data summary

An agreed definition of a 'place' is challenging as people may identify their place differently, for example some may feel that their local neighbourhood or estate is their local place, whereas others may identify more broadly with the town or city in which they live.

Hampshire is one of the larger local authorities, covering 11 districts and around 3,769 square km with a population of around 1.4 million. The population density varies across the area from rural locations where the population density is around 18 people per square km, to the more urban areas of Gosport, Basingstoke and Rushmoor where there are over 12,000 people per square km.

Almost 80% of the population live in urban areas of Hampshire. 22% of the population are aged 65 and over, although this varies from 29% of the population in the New Forest to 15% in Rushmoor. Overall, Hampshire is an affluent area, however, there are pockets of deprivation with two areas of Rushmoor and three areas of Havant in the 10% most deprived in England.

Urban green space

Greenspace, such as parks, woodland, fields and allotments as well as natural elements including green walls, are increasingly being recognised as an important asset for supporting health and wellbeing. Measuring access to green space is challenging, however mapping availability of urban green space has been included in this report.

Community links

The communities people are born, live, work and socialise in have a significant influence on how healthy they are. There are many ‘assets’ within communities that can be used to promote health and wellbeing, including leisure centres and social clubs, but also skills and knowledge. Across Hampshire, urban areas have greater access to community facilities.

Coastal communities

The Chief Medical Officer's 2021 Annual report focused on health inequalities in coastal areas. It outlined that these areas have low life expectancy and high rates of many diseases, compared with non-coastal areas. The nationally observed patterns of higher deprivation and lower life expectancy were also observed in Hampshire.

Food insecurity

Good nutrition is vital for living a healthy life. Food insecurity can occur through a number of ways, such as economic factors and through factors impacting on access to buying groceries. The Food Insecurity Index includes all these factors and is mapped in the report. Additionally, fast food outlet data shows that across Hampshire there are a greater number of fast food outlets in areas of higher deprivation.

Housing

This is a key determinant of health. Poor quality or unsuitable homes directly affect physical and mental wellbeing, creating or exacerbating health issues. Cold homes and fuel poverty are directly linked to excess winter deaths. Housing in Hampshire is less affordable than England and is continuing to become more expensive. However, Hampshire has a lower proportion of homes that are overcrowded than England, with the exception of Rushmoor.

Social isolation

This is the objective term used to describe an absence of social contacts or community involvement, or a lack of access to services. Loneliness is an unwelcome feeling or lack or loss of companionship. Social isolation and loneliness have negative impacts on health outcomes. Across Hampshire the social isolation index has identified small urban areas where older people are most at risk of social isolation. See Section 4 for social isolation index report.

Digital access

The extent to which people use the internet can impact on a number of life aspects such as social connections, access to services such as groceries, banking, employment, and access to health services. Across Hampshire there are small areas across almost all areas where there are people with limited engagement with the internet, although increasing numbers in the south (Gosport, Havant and small areas in the New Forest).

Crime

Crime impacts on how safe and secure a person feels and on the sense of community. Hampshire is a safe place to live, however crime rates are higher in Gosport, Havant and Rushmoor.

Gambling participation and alcohol consumption

These can be fun recreational activities, however both have the potential to cause great harm to individuals, families and wider society. Across Hampshire there are higher rates of gambling premises in Rushmoor and Havant, and higher rates of alcohol harm in urban areas.

Road safety

Improved road safety results in fewer injuries, but can also impact on wider public health benefits such as increasing active transport, reducing noise, air pollution and increasing community cohesion. Overall in Hampshire the number of people killed and seriously injured on the roads has been declining, with higher numbers of accidents during rush hour times.

Traffic

The amount of traffic on the roads can have a direct impact on health through road safety, air and noise pollution. Traffic is the largest contributor to CO2 emissions in Hampshire and the majority of vehicles miles travelled is by car.

Quality of transport infrastructure and adequacy of transport services

These can directly affect health, for example, by enabling active modes of travel that have health benefits or reducing road accidents and harmful emissions. Car ownership in Hampshire is high with the majority of commuting in the county by car. Active travel, through walking and cycling, has declined since 2017, however more recently there has been a slight increase.

Energy efficiency measures

These can support good physical and mental health primarily by creating healthy indoor living environments with healthy air temperatures, humidity levels, noise levels, and improved air quality. Domestic energy consumption is higher in East Hampshire, Hart and the New Forest with gas being the primary source of consumption. Renewable electricity proportions are increasing across Hampshire, however, the proportion of household waste recycled has not reached government targets of 50%.

Poor air quality

This is the largest environmental risk to public health in the UK. Long-term exposure to air pollution can cause chronic conditions such as cardiovascular and respiratory diseases as well as lung cancer, leading to reduced life expectancy. In the short term, poor air quality can exacerbate asthma and cause coughs, wheezing and shortness of breath. Air quality is poorer in the south of the county – Havant, Gosport and Fareham.

Climate change

Climate change is increasing the risk that extreme events, such as heatwaves and flooding, will occur. These events can result in increased mortality, especially in more vulnerable groups such as the elderly. Other populations groups will also experience impacts such as negative mental health consequences. Across Hampshire around 17,000 homes are at medium or high risk of flooding and local data has shown and increase in the number of heatwave days over the last 10 years.

Reports for Hampshire district areas 2024
Report for the Isle of Wight, 2024

Isle of Wight - coming soon

Social Isolation Index 2023

Social Isolation Index 2023: Exploring Hampshire and the Isle of Wight
The Social Isolation Index 2023 explores the vulnerabilities associated with an increased risk of social isolation. This written narrative supports the data available on the Healthy Places Power BI and is available for each district of Hampshire and the Isle of Wight.

Social Isolation 2023

Previous needs assessments and reports

Reports for Hampshire and Isle of Wight 2022

Social Isolation and Loneliness in Hampshire - January 2016 to December 2019
The Social Isolation and Loneliness needs assessment considers the extent and impact of social isolation on populations in Hampshire, especially those most at risk:

Social Isolation and Loneliness in Hampshire Needs Assessment

Spatial Planning Joint Needs Assessment
Our health is linked to our environment in many ways and recent guidance recognises the important role that spatial planning can have on health and wellbeing. This JSNA provides evidence of the links between, and the opportunities from, incorporating public health into planning. It is structured around four themes; green space, transport, healthy homes and healthy neighbourhoods.

Spatial Planning Joint Strategic Needs Assessment

Nepali Needs Assessment 2010
This report was created because of the growth of the Nepali community within Rushmoor due to changes in the law which allowed ex Gurkhas to settle in the UK. Rushmoor has a military base in Aldershot and this military connection has meant that significant migration has occurred to this area. The population of Rushmoor in the 2011 Census was 93,800, with 6,131 people (6.5%) identifying themselves as Nepalese (includes Gurkha). Despite the significant size of this community little was known about its specific health needs – hence the requirement for this needs assessment.

Health Needs Assessment of the Nepali Community in Rushmoor

Green Space Planning 2018
This report provides a brief state of the evidence for the association of green space and health, with a particular focus on British studies. It also briefly investigates the research methods used to define green spaces and the importance of considering accessibility and quality of green space for health outcomes. A summary of practical guidelines for green space planning is also included.

Green Space Planning and Health: Research Summary

Green Space Planning and Health presentation